Orchard Fact Sheets:
1. Considering Risk Before Starting an Organic Orchard
2. Organic Tree Fruit Certification
3. Planning the Organic Orchard
4. Resources for Organic Orchardists
5. Managing Pests & Diseases in an Organic Apple Orchard
Ask an Organic Specialist: Orchard Answers
Can I sell organic fruits and vegetables from plants and planting stock I buy at my local garden center?
The land you raise them on must be free of prohibited materials for 36 months prior to your first organic harvest. If you have planted nonorganic annual transplants in the same fields in the past, your certification agency may consider the land to be nonorganic, and require you to wait three years after that planting to have your first organic harvest. This decision may depend on whether the plants were bare root or were transplanted with their nonorganic potting mix. There is some difference between certifiers.Some allow one year to pass and others require three years. The interpretation of this regulation is something you want to discuss with your certification agency if you are requesting organic certification for the first time.
Your transplants cannot be purchased from an “exempt from certification” (under the $5,000 limit) operation. They must be certified organic, grown by you or someone else who has a valid organic certificate. Some natural food stores may be able to provide you with an organic certificate for the plants they sell, but most garden centers do not sell certified organic transplants.
You can grow the transplants yourself, using approved planting media which does not contain any synthetic fertilizers, fungicides, wetting agents or other prohibited materials. These items are not mandated to be listed on the label of commercially available potting media, so you must get information in writing from the manufacturer detailing the ingredients, stating that the media has not been treated with prohibited fungicides, insecticides, etc. There are many organically approved potting mix and input suppliers. For resources, see the MOSES Resource Directory (www.mosesorganic.org/resourcedirectory.html) or the OMRI Products List (www.omri.org)
Be very careful when purchasing any fertility input or potting mix, since the word “organic” on these items does not always mean the same thing as “approved for organic production.” Long before the USDA organic regulation, the word “organic” on a label meant it contained the element carbon. To find products you can use, you must look for the OMRI seal and the words “approved for organic production.” Always verify with your organic certification agency that whatever you want to use is acceptable before you buy it.
For fruit trees, raspberry bushes, or other perennials, you are mandated to search for organic planting stock. However, if you cannot find the variety, quality or quantity you want as organic, you can use non-organic planting stock. You must document this search.
In a recent National Organic Program guidance it was clarified that an organic harvest from non-organic planting stock can be done immediately after beginning organic management and planting into organic soil. However, you cannot create and sell organic planting stock from parent nonorganic stock until it has been managed organically for 12 months. For example, you can plant non-organic strawberry plants and harvest an organic crop that same year after planting (after failing to find commercially available organic plants) whether you manage the strawberries as an annual or a perennial. If you buy a non-organic tarragon plant, you can sell the tarragon as organic immediately after planting in organic soil, but could not make cuttings and sell those as organic tarragon plants for 12 months.
Items such as potatoes, garlic, and sweet potatoes (in other words, roots, tubers, rhizomes, shoots, leaf or stem cuttings) are subject to the organic search, and can be planted as non-organic if none were found. However, each year there is more and more availability of these items as organic, and your search must truly cover not just your local store, but also the many mail order and internet operations that sell these items.
Resources & Research:
- Organic Tree Fruit Association
A non-profit organization dedicated to serving the interests of organic tree fruit growers and advancing the organic tree fruit industry through education, research and advocacy.
- Fire Blight Control Program in Organic Fruit (4 MB PDF)
This 28-page report from The Organic Center provides the latest information on controlling fire blight in organic fruit production without the use of antibiotics. It includes highlights of emerging research plus lessons from growers who have implemented non-antibiotic fire blight control over the past decade. Successful non-antibiotic fire blight control centers on combining orchard management practices into an integrated systems approach which is multi-faceted, and marries effective fire blight prevention with fungal control, insect control, bloom thinning, spray coverage, tree training, soil and foliar nutrients, and cultivar and root stock selection.
- Online Organic Grower Guides
Online organic resources for growing apples, beans, carrots, grapes, and more from Cornell University. (Although these guides were written primarily for New York growers, the recommendations are applicable to growers in other humid regions.)
From the Organic Broadcaster:
Fruit and vegetable growers throughout the Midwest are familiar with the labor vs. machinery trade-off. Read more.
Blue fruits (blueberries, black currants, elderberries, aronia, and honeyberries) are quite popular in Europe, and are gaining popularity in the U.S. Read more.
Bramble berries—raspberries and blackberries—can be great additions to the diversified market farm or orchard. Read more.